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VIBRATIONS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE IN GREECE

Harris Mouzakis
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Harris Mouzakis is an Assistant Professor at the Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering of the School of Civil Engineering at N.T.U.A., since 2002 and his teaching experience concentrates on Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (undergraduate level) as well as on Experimental Earthquake Engineering and the Pathology and Design of Earthquake Resistant Structures on a graduate level. His research interests focus mainly on the Theoretical and Experimental Engineering Technology, with emphasis on the set up and execution of dynamic shaking table tests, the performance of static-loading tests on the Reaction Wall located at the Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering and in-situ vibration measurements on :
• Buildings due to excavations, construction and operation of subway and tram.
• Buildings due to ambient vibrations to determine their dynamic characteristics.
• Ground for microzonation studies.
• Monuments Ambient vibration and vibrations due to explosions.
• Bridges Railway Steel bridges during operation to investigate their fatigue life.
• Chimneys due to the operation of generators of electric power.
• Tanks due to explosions in the near field area
He has participated (as Coordinator or Principal Investigator) in 53 funded Research Projects, has published 31 papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals and peer-reviewed conferences and his scientific work has attracted 98 citations (h index=4, based on Scopus database).


Assistant professor
Laboratory for Earthquake Engineering (LEE)
School of Civil Engineering
National Technical University of Athens

Cultural Heritage Structures (CHS) and museums could suffer damage when excited by a certain level of various man- or earthquake-induced vibrations. Such man-induced vibrations are those generated by the construction and operation of rail transit systems. Vibrations could cause damage to structures, as well as discomfort to people, whereas sufficient loudness of the ground born noise could be a further source of disturbance. Moreover, strong ground motions generated by earthquakes could significantly damage these structures. In the last decades, due to the construction and operation of the Athens Metro, extensive experience in the area of vibrations has
been accumulated, in addition to the existing knowledge concerning the response of CHS subjected to earthquakes. This new rail system is underground and the construction of tunnels was performed by TBM (mainly) or NATM, while also Cut-and-Cover (C&C) was occasionally implemented.
The standard STEDEF trackform was used, with a resilient pad placed under the sleeper and then encased in a rubber boot providing high flexibility and reassuring protection to control groundborne noise and vibration to levels below the applicable criteria. At the locations where the STEDEF system was not sufficient, floating slabs were implemented. In the majority of CHS, the predominant construction material is masonry. These buildings can be divided in two categories: ancient structures, where no mortar was used in the bed joints between the stones or marbles (dry construction), and historical ones, where mortar is used to connect the brick or stone blocks. The type of the load-bearing system of a building, the construction materials, the type of the foundation, the existence of a basement and the soil mechanical characteristics affect significantly the transmission of vibrations. The transfer of the waves between soil and building is a function of: (a) the coupling between soil and foundation, (b) the reduction between foundation and building floors, interior walls and secondary elements, and (c) the amplification due to resonances of various building elements. In this lecture, the effects of vibrations, ground borne noise, and earthquakes on structures and artifacts are described and various characteristic test cases are presented. The criteria adopted by international standards and codes are annotated and their competence for these structural systems is investigated. As examples of historical structures, the following are described: (a) Keramikos Museum contains a substantial amount of pottery, taken from the site's burial ground. Metro line passes in a tunnel in front of the museum. The main goal was to protect the artifacts from vibrations induced during the construction and operation of the Metro line. A floating slab was adopted as a solution. (b) Kapnikarea church, where the Metro line passes directly underneath. The main goal was to protect the structural system of the monument from vibrations during the construction of the tunnel as well as during operation. An important issue was also to protect people from the annoyance of the ground born noise radiated by the transit line during religious services, and (c) The Katholikon of Dafni monastery built in the 11th century. The monument had already suffered significant earthquake damages. A health monitoring system was installed to record earthquakes. Finally, as a representative case of ancient structures, the seismic response of the Parthenon of the Acropolis of Athens is presented.



COMMON NOISE ASSESSMENT METHODS FOR EUROPE (CNOSSOS-EU): IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES IN THE CONTEXT OF EU NOISE POLICY DEVELOPMENTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

Stelios Kephalopoulos
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Dr Stylianos Kephalopoulos is since 1993 scientific officer of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre and is the head of the Exposure Competence Group of the Institute and Health Consumer Protection.
In the last 20 years he has been contributing significantly to the development of a number of harmonization frameworks in support of the implementation of various environment and health policies at EU level including: the development of the common noise assessment methods for Europe (CNOSSOS-EU) linked to the implementation of the Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC); the development of EU harmonization frameworks concerning the labelling, monitoring and health-based evaluation of chemical emissions from construction products linked the implementation of the Construction Products Regulation; He is coordinator of the long-standing and widely recognized European Collaborative Action on "Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure" (ECA) and is scientifically supporting DG ENER concerning the foundations for safe, healthy, energy-efficient and sustainable buildings in EU.
Stylianos Kephalopoulos is author of about 50 publications in peer-reviewed journals and more than 300 papers and presentations in conference proceedings and high level EU science-policy events.


European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection

The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) (END) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States and represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe.
In 2015 CNOSSOS-EU became a new EU Directive (based on a revised Annex II of the END) and will be mandatory for all EU Member States after 31 December 2018.
In this presentation we will discuss a number of implementation challenges that should be faced in the context of current and potential EU noise policy developments and future perspectives before CNOSSOS-EU can become fully operational in the EU MS.
With the purpose of more accurately estimating the exposure of EU citizens to potential harmful levels of environmental noise and assessing the associated burden of disease in Europe the implementation of CNOSSOS-EU in the EU Member States should be seen in strict relation to: (a) the on-going evaluation of the END implementation in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, relevance, EU added value and coherence in the context of the European Commission's Regulatory Fitness and Performance program (REFIT); (b) the revised Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region under development by the World Health Organization (WHO) and (c) the development of methods to assess the health implications of noise exposure by means of dose-effect relationships (revision of Annex III of the END).



BUILDING ON SPRINGS: TOWARDS A PERFORMANCEBASED DESIGN APPROACH FOR CONTROLLING GROUNDBORNE VIBRATION

James Talbot
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James Talbot graduated from Cambridge with a BA and MEng degree in Mechanical Engineering, having been a sponsored student with Westland Aerostructures. He went on to spend two years with the engineering consultancy Atkins, before returning to the department to complete his PhD on the vibration isolation of buildings. This was followed by his post-doctoral research within the EU project CONVURT on the control of noise and vibration from underground railways. After CONVURT, Dr Talbot returned to Atkins where he spent a further nine years working primarily in the fields of vibration engineering and structural integrity. His experience covers experimental work, theoretical analysis and design, from across a wide range of industries. Dr Talbot returned to Cambridge in 2013 as a University Lecturer in the Structures Group of the Civil Engineering Division. He was elected an Official Fellow of Peterhouse, where he is Director of Studies for first-year undergraduates in Engineering. He is a Chartered Engineer and a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and a Member of the Institute of Acoustics and the International Institute of Acoustics & Vibration.

Cambridge University, Engineering Department

"As our society becomes more affluent and as the standards we require from our environment become higher there may be an increasing awareness that amenity is being reduced by the noise and vibration and smell and so on produced by railways. In short, there will be more demand for something to be done about it." So said R A Waller in his book, Building on Springs, published back in 1969. Waller was right: the demand to reduce the impact of groundborne vibration in our cities has indeed grown, and there are now many examples of base-isolated buildings, founded on steel springs or elastomeric bearings to reduce disturbance from perceptible vibration and re-radiated noise. Despite this growth in the use of base isolation, the governing theory and fundamental design practice has been slow to develop, and the inherent uncertainties and risks originally identified by Waller in the design of these buildings remain. This paper reviews the practice of base-isolation design, and highlights some of the problems in evaluating design performance, before offering some thoughts on future research efforts as we aim to move towards a performance-based design approach for controlling groundborne vibration.



INTERIOR SOUND AND VIBRATION CONTROL FOR AIR VEHICLE APPLICATIONS

Li Cheng
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Dr. L. Cheng received his BSc degree in Applied Mechanics from Xi'an Jiaotong University in 1984, DEA and Ph.D degrees from the Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon (INSA-Lyon), France in 1986 and 1989, respectively. He started his academic career in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laval University, Canada in 1992, rising from an assistant professor to Associate/Full Professor, before joining the Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University as a Professor in 2000. He became a Chair Professor in 2005 and the Head of Department from 2011 to 2014. He was also Director of Consortium for Sound and Vibration Research (CSVR). Dr. Cheng's published extensively, with over 350 publications including book/book chapters and journal/conference papers, receiving over 3000 citations. He was an elected fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, Acoustical Society of China, IMechE and the Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. He is also a member of IIAV. He currently serves as an Associate Editor for the Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Associate Editor of Structural Health Monitoring: an International Journal, and an editorial board member of the International Journal of Applied Mechanics, ACTA ACUSTICA Sinica, Chinese Journal of Acoustics as well as four other international journals. Dr. Cheng served as the Chair/Co-Chair and a scientific committee member for over 30 times in various international conferences, including the general Chair of the 46th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering (Inter-noise) and Chair of 14th Asia Pacific Vibration Conference. He also delivered plenary/keynote talks (over 15 times) in various international conferences


Department of Mechanical Engineering
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Effective interior noise and vibration control inside an acoustic enclosure surrounded by flexible vibrating walls is a typical vibro-acoustic problem, relevant to numerous applications. To tackle the problem, a comprehensive set of technological knowhow, including the development of efficient and flexible modelling and optimization tools, thorough understanding of the underlying physics as well as the development of effective control means is indispensable. This paper reviews and highlights some of the past and on-going work undertaken by the speaker and his team in this area. Topics include the discussions on the general structural-acoustic coupling, development of efficient simulation, analysis and optimization tools, as well as various passive and active control techniques, all under the context of interior noise and vibration control for air vehicles and space structures.



MICROBUBBLE PUMPS: ULTRASOUND THERAGNOSTIC AGENTS

Christy Holland
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Christy K. Holland attended Wellesley College where she majored in Physics and Music. Thereafter she completed an M.S., M.Phil., and Ph.D. at Yale University in Engineering and Applied Science. Dr. Holland is a Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Health and Disease, College of Medicine and Biomedical Engineering Program (BME) in the College of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Cincinnati (UC). She directs the Image-Guided Ultrasound Therapeutics Laboratories in the UC Cardiovascular Center, which focus on applications of biomedical ultrasound including sonothrombolysis, ultrasound-mediated drug and bioactive gas delivery, development of echogenic liposomes, early detection of cardiovascular diseases, and ultrasound-image guided tumor ablation. Prof. Holland serves as Director of Research for the Heart, Lung, and Vascular Institute, a key component of efforts to align the UC College of Medicine and UC Health efforts around research, education, and clinical programs. She is a fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, and the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering. She assumed the editorship of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, the official Journal of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, in 2006. Prof. Holland currently serves as President of the Acoustical Society of America. She is actively involved in teaching biomedical engineering and medical imaging in the BME undergraduate and graduate curriculum and served as the Director of Graduate Studies 2008-2009. She mentors and advises students within and outside of BME educational programs. Christy Holland's research interests include ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis for stroke therapy, ultrasound-mediated drug delivery, bioeffects of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound, and acoustic cavitation. As a result of her research, Prof. Holland has gained wide recognition at UC, nationally and internationally for her excellence and contributions in ultrasound research. Prof. Holland has consulted professionally in the fields of medical ultrasound and architectural acoustics and continues to perform locally with the Knox Choir under the direction of Earl Rivers.

Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Health and Disease and Biomedical Engineering Program
Director of Research
Heart, Lung, and Vascular Institute
University of Cincinnati

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide and thrombo-occlusive disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Ultrasound has been developed as both a diagnostic tool and a potent promoter of beneficial bioeffects for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Ultrasound exposure can induce the release, delivery and enhanced efficacy of a thrombolytic drug (rt-PA) and bioactive gases from echogenic liposomes. By encapsulating drugs into micron-sized and nano-sized liposomes, the therapeutic can be shielded from degradation within the vasculature until delivery is triggered by ultrasound exposure. Insonification accelerates clot breakdown in combination with rt-PA and ultrasound contrast agents, which nucleate sustained bubble activity, or stable cavitation. Mechanisms for ultrasound enhancement of thrombolysis, with a special emphasis on cavitation and radiation force, will be reviewed. A non-invasive strategy for ultrasound-triggered local therapeutic gas delivery to treat ischemic injury, a sequela of thrombo-occlusive disease, is also under development. The delivery of bioactive gases, such as xenon and nitric oxide, from echogenic liposomes to promote vasodilation and cytoprotection will be discussed. An overview of passive cavitation imaging, a real-time method to monitor drug delivery and differentiate stable and inertial cavitation in flow, will also be provided.



SOUND GENERATION BY FLUID FLOW

Ricardo E. Musafir
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Ricardo E. Musafir obtained his BS in civil engineering (1978), and his MS (1984) and DS (1990) in Mechanical engineering (Acoustics). He is an associate professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, acting both in the (graduate) Department of Mechanical Engineering at COPPE and in the Department of Water Resources and Environmental Sciences, at the School of Engineering. He is 'subject editor' for general acoustics for the Journal of Sound and Vibration since 2009. His research interests include aeroacoustics, with emphasis on the comparison of the diverse existing theories and on jet noise modeling, the modeling of sound sources in general, environmental acoustics and virtual acoustics. He is a member of the Brazilian Standards Committee on Acoustics, acting mostly in environmental acoustics, and has helped in the making of some of the legislation on noise for the city and for the state of Rio de Janeiro. He has published around 95 papers in conference proceedings and major scientific journals. He is an IIAV member since 2000; was chairman of ICSV18 in 2011, which took place in Rio de Janeiro, and served as member of the IIAV Board of Directors for the period 2010-2014.

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The description of the generation of sound by fluid flow involves the use of a criterion to differentiate between what part of the fluid movement refers to "sound" and what part refers to "flow" and this criterion is somewhat arbitrary. To discuss this issue, the basic mechanisms of sound generation in the linear acoustics of a homogeneous medium at rest are initially reviewed, in order to illustrate how sources of sound are described in this case, where the assumed restrictions make the modeling from the basic equations of fluid mechanics (i.e., those describing the balance of mass, momentum and energy) quite simple. This is used to emphasize the physics of the "acoustic analogy approach", where the use of a criterion and/or the choice of a reference situation permit interpreting the terms in the individual equations either as propagation terms or as source terms and, if possible, the combination of the equations into a single inhomogeneous wave equation. The Lighthill analogy and other existing approaches are then discussed, with emphasis on the physics they assume, in order to highlight the advantages and limitations of each one. The success of jet noise predictions based in different theories is briefly discussed, while questions still unresolved are pointed out, these ones showing that the subject of aeroacoustics still contains challenging philosophical issues.


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